Breath/Urine analysis

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Human expired air/urine contains both endogenous (metabolites) and exogenous (non-metabolites) compounds. These compounds are potential indicators of a person's health status and for possible exposure to chemicals. Breath/urine analysis can provide information for medical status as well as for security and safety issues.

GC-IMS spectrum of acetone in expired air



  • A. Agapiou, K. Mikedi, S. Karma, Z.K. Giotaki, D. Kolostoumbis, C. Papageorgiou, E. Zorba, C. Spiliopoulou, A. Amann, M. Statheropoulos, “Physiology and biochemistry of human subjects under entrapment”, Journal of Breath Research, 2013, 7, 016004. View at publisher
  • P. Mochalski, M. Buszewska, A. Agapiou, M. Statheropoulos, B. Buszewski,  A. Amann, “Preliminary investigation of permeation profiles of selected headspace urine volatiles using IMS”, Chromatographia, 2012, 75, 41–46. View at publisher
  • Paweł Mochalski, Agapios Agapiou, Milt Statheropoulos, Anton Amann, “Permeation profiles of potential urine-born markers of human presence over brick and concrete”, Analyst, 2012, 137, 3278-3285. View at publisher
  • P. Mochalski, K. Krapf, C. Ager, H. Wiesenhofer, A. Agapiou, M. Statheropoulos, D. Fuchs, E. Ellmerer, B. Buszewski, A. Amann, “Temporal profiling of human urine VOCs and its potential role under the ruins of collapsed buildings”, Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods, 2012, 22,  502–511. View at publisher
  • R Huo, A. Agapiou, V Bocos-Bintintan, L. Brown, C Burns, C S Creaser, N. Davenport, B Gao-Lau, C Guallar-Hoyas, L Hildebrand, A Malkar, H Martin, V H Moll, P Patel, A Ratiu, James C Reynolds, S Sielmann, R Slodzynski, M Statheropoulos, M Turner, W Vautz, V Wright, Paul Thomas, “The Trapped Human Experiment”, Journal of Breath Research, 2011, 5 046006. View at publisher
  • Rudnicka J., Mochalski P., Agapiou A., Statheropoulos M., Amann A., Buszewski B., Application of Ion Mobility Spectrometry for the detection of human urine, Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 2010), 398, 2031-2038 View at publisher
  • Statheropoulos M, Sianos E, Agapiou A, Georgiadou A, Pappa A, Tzamtzis N, et al. Preliminary investigation of using volatile organic compounds from human expired air, blood and urine for locating entrapped people in earthquakes Journal of Chromatography B: Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences, 2005, 822, 112-117 View at publisher
  • Statheropoulos, M., Agapiou, A., Georgiadou, A., Analysis of expired air of fasting male monks at Mount Athos, Journal of Chromatography B: Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences, 2006, 832, 274-279 View at publisher


Conference presentations

  • Agapios Agapiou, “Second generation locators for sniffing human metabolites” 2nd Cyprus Safety Platform Symposium, Nicosia, Cyprus, 30/1/2013.
  • A. Agapiou, K. Mikedi, G.C. Pallis, S. Gianoukos, A. Pappa, M. Statheropoulos, “FIRST; a multi-sensor portable device for detecting human signatures and hazardous Events”, 20th International Conference On-Site Analysis for Homeland Security, Forensics and Environmental Remediation, January 23-25, 2012, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A.
  • M. Statheropoulos, A. Agapiou, G.C. Pallis, S. Karma, K. Mikedi, “Modelling entrapment in collapsed buildings: expired air analysis”, Breath 2009: International Conference on Breath and Breath Odour Research, April 26-30, 2009, Dortmund, Germany.